Guizhou Province has the highest incidence and severity of poverty throughout the country. The investigation on its poverty alleviation is of typical significance for the poverty relief and development of concentrated and continuous destitute areas in the new time. On the basis of in-depth research, the 4 typical counties on poverty relief and development in Guizhou Province – Changshun, Yinjiang, Qinglong and Weining have been studied intensively. In the meanwhile, their common successful experiences and existing problems have been summarized. With regard to the complete path for the next stage of poverty alleviation system in Guizho Province, the following recommendations have been proposed: establish a multi-level system for sending agricultural technicians down to the countryside; improve the autonomy of primary-level organizations, especially the anti-poverty organizations at the county level; standardize the allocation of welfare projects; promote agricultural insurance; and improve the sustainable development capacity and market competition ability of farmer specialized cooperative economy organizations.