To systematically comb and explore the rural poverty reduction effect of traffic infrastructure, the author analyzed the mechanism, main channels and actual effect of rural traffic infrastructure on poverty reduction. It revealed that rural traffic infrastructure exerts positive or negative effect on poverty reduction. The positive channel includes increasing non-agricultural employment opportunities, reducing costs for agricultural production, transportation and labor transfer, increasing availability of social service, and promoting adjustment of agricultural industrial structure and development of rural tourism resources. On the whole, traffic infrastructure has significant positive influence on rural poverty reduction. Finally, it summarized policy recommendations for building pro-poor traffic infrastructure, and came up with vacancy of related research field and future exploration direction.