We investigated the economic attractiveness of different land uses and possible payments for carbon in rubber monoculture and agroforest, and biodiversity in agroforest under revenue uncertainty in Jambi, Indonesia. A multi-period programming with Monte Carlo simulation and Brownian motion were used. Findings showed that farm incomes would substantially vary, and to mitigate uncertainty the farmland would be diversified. Further increase in carbon prices would result in enhancing the area of rubber monoculture and would lead to possible trade-off in agrobiodiversity. When the payments for ecosystem services are targeted for agroforest then its returns would increase and reduce farm income variability.


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