China’s rampant environmental pollution problems and rising greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting climate change are undermining its long-term economic growth. China, from its own perspective cannot afford to and, from an international perspective, is not meant to continue on the conventional path of encouraging economic growth at the expense of the environment. Instead, concerns about a range of environmental stresses from burning fossil fuels, energy security as a result of steeply rising oil imports and international pressure on it to exhibit greater ambition in fighting global climate change have sparked China’s determination to improve energy efficiency and cut pollutants, and to increase the use of clean energy in order to help its transition to a low-carbon economy. This chapter focuses on China’s efforts towards energy conservation, nuclear power and the use of renewable energy. The chapter examines a number of market-based instruments, economic and industrial policies and measures targeted for energy saving, pollution cutting, energy greening. To actually achieve the desired outcomes, however, requires strict implementation and coordination of these policies and measures. The chapter discusses a variety of implementation/compliance/reliability issues. The chapter ends with some concluding remarks and recommendations.