It is necessary to rethink the process of agrarian transforma-tion by approaching agrarian reform as a strategic vehicle for social and sustainable development. This has implications for general agricultural and economic growth, as well as for social justice and the conception of development as an expansion of freedom. Various analytical studies of the economic and historical factors of agricultural development proces-ses, for example in Latin America context, have highlighted a number of important linkages that should be considered in discussions of agrarian reform. High levels of inequality at the beginning of a development pro-cess (for example, high concentration of land and wealth) weigh negati-vely on long-term economic growth. Countries with a high concentration of land achieve slower economic growth than those with a more egali-tarian land structure. High levels of economic and land concentration also form a barrier to the promotion of social justice, leaving millions of people in the margins of full citizenship. Agrarian reform program-mes should be accompanied by measures such as poverty reduction and equity promotion policies, to support the beneﬁciaries in order for these reforms to have signiﬁcant and sustainable results.