The study examines the determinants of improved agricultural technologies adoption in Uganda, using a nationally representative panel data set of 1,600 farming households, collected by the Ugandan Bureau of Statistics in 2005/6 and 2009/10. Two agricultural technologies—improved seeds and fertilizer—out of the seven types identified by the study were further considered and analyzed. Estimates from the probit regression model show that farmers with low education and land holdings are less likely to adopt improved seeds and fertilizer, while peer effects play a big role in influencing farmers to either use improved seeds or fertilizer. Furthermore, cattle keeping farmers in Western Uganda are more likely to abandon fertilizers and possibly resort to organic manure from livestock excreta. Policy, therefore, should be directed at addressing the supply side constraints of agricultural technologies.