Technological innovations in the agri-food sector raise the issue of their acceptability by consumers and their market entry in Europe. Recent research on perceptions of nanotechnology in food enables to understand and anticipate potential consumer reactions before the introduction of new products. One survey highlights indifference among German and French consumers as regards nanotechnologies, as well as a form of pessimism towards these products. An experimental economics study carried out in a laboratory shows a mistrustful attitude from French and German consumers and a low acceptance for nano-food or food nano-packaging. In the present state of knowledge and taking into account consumer attitudes towards this technology, possibilities for developing nano-products in the agri-food sector currently appear to be limited.