Evaluating the rural communities social context capacity to manage changes coming from external agents is of paramount importance for effective Social Sustainability strategies identification. A literature survey was carried out on the Resilience approach definition and its application to the Social Assessment in rural areas. The analysis showed that the Resilience approach is dynamic and context-dependent. It enriches the Social Assessment by focusing on the specific capabilities of the communities in managing changes. The Resilience perspective embraces the dynamic character of communities and human-ecosystem interactions outlining multiple potential pathways. It provides a deeper understanding of how a community’s positive response to change can be strengthened and supported. Moreover, the specific focus on rural communities highlights how strongly Social and Ecological Resilience are intertwined in the identification of the mechanisms that guarantee Social Sustainability which, in turn, is strictly interrelated with Environmental and Economic Sustainability.