The industrial production of food represents a strong motive of international trade, the development of competitiveness, high-quality products and a sustainable developmental strategy. The food industry has a significant place within Serbia’s economy and industry today. The subject of this paper’s study is the analysis of the reached levels of the development and competitiveness, limitations and future development of the food industry. The aim of this paper is to highlight the assumptions and possibilities of the development of the food industry in our country, i.e. tasks which it is given in order to achieve the growth of its efficiency and competitiveness. In this paper, appropriate methods of quantitative analysis, qualitative and structural changes are used. The indicators of export competitiveness which are used as indicators are the coverage of import with export and the index of Revealed Comparative Advantages (RCA).