Increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially of carbon dioxide, has led to attempts to implement carbon policies in order to limit and stabilize gases at acceptable levels. Agricultural activities increase greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but they can also mitigate concentration of carbon dioxide by sequestering additional carbon. This study evaluated carbon emissions and carbon sequestration and examined the impacts of payments for sequestration and taxes on carbon emissions on cropping choices, profitability, and water consumption in the Texas High Plains. The results showed that reduction of total carbon emissions to 15% of a baseline and imposing a tax reduced the amount of water consumed for irrigation, by about 20% and 16%, respectively. However, payment for sequestration did not affect reduction of carbon emissions, water consumption nor the product mix.