Large-scale development of urban land use has led to change of a variety of natural processes and ecological processes, resulting in complex eco-environmental consequences. The objective of this study was to analyze the urban land use and its impact on air environment effect in Chengdu, western China from 1992 to 2008 following the RS (Remote Sensing) and GIS technique. The environmental effects data of urban land use was extracted and analyzed by overlaying layers of urban land use and the density of nitrogen dioxide and total suspended particulate matter in sampling points data concerning to the air quality of the environment in Chengdu based on GIS spatial analysis method. The results show that the main feature of urban land use change was substantial reduction of cultivated land and construction land and forest land increased significantly within the study area from1992 to 2008. The temporal-spatial change was notable in study period time. Land use has a significant impact on urban air environment, the chroma change of nitrogen dioxide derived from forest land was obvious, the area occupied by different nitrogen dioxide chroma was the largest. The urban land use impact on the highest class chroma of total suspended particulate matter was notable and its area was the greatest. The results show also the spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide chroma and total suspended particulate matter chroma in study area is reduced following from Qingbaijiang District-Xindu District-downtown to both sides. The spatial distribution of industry, mining and traffic land is basically the same chroma spatial distribution. Therefore, the results of this study provide a scientific basis for improvement air environment quality, the urban sustainable development and a scientific response for decisions from the municipal governments.