Tornquist input quantity indexes derived from USDA/SRS/FEDS survey data along with yield data are used to derive total and partial factor productivity measures across time and region for a sample of representative u.s. cotton enterprises. Total factor productivity for u.s. cotton increased only .2% per year between 1974 and 1982 compared to a much higher post-World-War-II growth rate of about 5%. Partial productivity measures revealed that yield growth was about .6% per year, while total input use grew about .4% per year. Among the input categories, capital and labor requirements decreased about 1% per year and materials use increased by about 1.5%. cotton enterprises in selected regions in Alabama and Mississippi gained and those in the Texas High Plains lost competitive advantage relative to enterprises in the California region.