The aim of this paper is the economic and financial condition of the test group of Agricultural Property Agency companies. We used horizontal and vertical analysis of profit and loss accounts and in-depth indicator analysis. We focus on the period 2001-2009, in view of the fact that it was a specific period for APA companies, mainly due to the implementation of a broad restructuring, including through substantial investments. In the analysed eight-year period (which covers the time before and after Polish accession to the EU), APA plant and animal breeding companies were characterised by a positive ratio of profitability of business activity. In respect of APA companies, an analysis of the return on equity showed that in the whole discussed period, it was characterised by a positive level. The animal breeding companies had the highest return on equity (ROE) (average of 6.1%), subsequently, plant companies had a 3.6% average, while the so-called ‘horse’ companies (horse and stallion studs) had a 0.7% average.