This paper firstly introduces research achievements in change of rural society in China after reform and opening-up. Researches are conducted mainly in household contract responsibility system and the relation between township government and village administration. From the perspective of autonomy, it reviews the course of autonomous growth in rural economic field from the economic system reform to implementation of household contract responsibility system. Then, it analyzes expansion of space of rural self-organizations and reconstruction of relation between township government and village administration. Finally, it is concluded mat autonomy is a path for development of rural society.