Severe situation faced by China's agri-ecological security is elaborated. It is believed that cultivation of farmers' citizenship is the key to solving this problem, because it is favorable to consolidating farmers' independent and equal ideas, enhancing farmers' cooperative community idea, cultivating farmers' concept of rule by law, and strengthening farmers' fair and just moral concept. It is expected to make farmers fully exercise their civil rights and consciously perform their civil responsibilities. Finally, practical paths for cultivation of farmers' citizenship are put forward. These include improving market economy to promote equality of subjects, carrying out democratic practice to stimulate public participation, prospering cultural education to make clear public liability, propagating law in villages to carry forward spirit of rule by law, and making definite government responsibility to encourage social supervision.