Over the past two decades, U.S. food retailers are providing more organic private label foods (PLs) which are directly competing with the National Brand (NB) products. From a policy perspective, an increased availability of high-quality PL products might provide consumers with a more affordable way to cover their produce consumption. Using a two-step Heckman selection model, we estimate the impact of purchase information, demographics, and food environment on the purchasing likelihood and expenditure shares of PL organic vs. conventional spinach. Results show that food context, most notably food availability, access, and adult obesity rate, significantly influences organic PL spinach choice.


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