The paper combs the problems about living difficulties of farmers and marketing economy in the risk society and puts forward another point of view that with the theory of risk society, reconsider the dilemma of living choices of farmers under the background of marketing economy. On the basis of the statistics, the paper discloses the trend of larger and larger disparities of incomes between urban and rural areas; the paper explains the risks and uncertainties of life choices with the background of deepening marketing economy. In order to understand the life dilemma of farmers and marketing economy in the risk society, the paper makes an analysis from perspectives of the relationships between risk society and markets, the risks of farmers' living choices. The results show that in the risk society, because of the division space from time, the personal farmers are devoid of the safe environment. Then the situation deepens to worse. In addition to the organization which is not in charge results in a situation that the personal farmers would take ail risks by themselves.