The paper introduces about the rural surplus labor transfer. According to the paper, the transfer of rural surplus labor in China presents such fundamental characteristics as randomness and non-thoroughness, scope and field constraint, and hysteretic nature of employment and industrial structure conversion. Besides, the causes of the difficulties in the transfer of rural surplus labor lie in the barriers from the system and policy, structural imbalance of industry and low quality of rural labor. The paper studies the correlation between the quality and the transfer of rural surplus labor in a systematical way from three aspects, which are the correlations between rural labor quality and the transfer difficulty & speed, the transfer scope & field and the employment stability & income after transfer respectively. Moreover, the paper carries out analysis of the special effects of vocational education on the transfer of rural surplus labor in China, which shows that vocational education is a help in the improvement of cultural qualities, labor skills and physical & mental health of rural labor.