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000045701 005__ 20181130195118.0
000045701 037__ $$a519-2016-37555
000045701 037__ $$a519-2016-37647
000045701 041__ $$aen
000045701 245__ $$aImplicit Contracts and the Grey Market for Fertilizer in China
000045701 260__ $$c2003-03-08
000045701 269__ $$a2003-03-08
000045701 300__ $$a15
000045701 336__ $$aJournal Article
000045701 490__ $$aNumber 4
000045701 490__ $$a2003
000045701 520__ $$aA common occurrence in many countries is that policy outcomes differ from the official objectives of the policy directives. A good example can be found in China. In 1994, the fertilizer market in China underwent a significant change. In response to strong complaints from farmers in a number of regions about shortages and substantial price increases, the central government set the markup rate for fertilizer as it moved from fertilizer plants to farmers and granted the Agricultural Means of Production Corporations(AMPCs) a monopoly role as the supplier of fertilizer. The results of the 1994 policy reforms were not as expected. Controls on maximum retail prices failed to produce the desired effect and prices for agricultural inputs continued to increase by large margins. In both 1995 and 1996, the actual fertilizer price greatly exceeded the government-mandated price (Xiao, 1998). Nor did enterprises fully follow the controls in other respects. Some broke the allowed limit of 10 percent for products to be sold directly by fertilizer producers, and some trading agencies overcharged by adding more transport and handling expenses than were allowed (Zhou, 1996; Zhang and Ji, 1995; MOA,1996). In addition, although the AMPCwas to be the sole trader, the private traders in many provinces continued to play a significant role – the market share of the private traders ranged from approximately 5 percent in Yunnan province to nearly 25 percent in Shaanxi (Xiao, 1998). Thus, while private trading was not officially sanctioned, a well-defined grey market clearly existed in which private dealers purchased fertilizer from the AMPC and retailed it to farmers.
000045701 542__ $$fLicense granted by Valerie Johnson (valcaes@telus.net) on 2008-12-07T21:39:38Z (GMT):

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000045701 650__ $$aAgricultural and Food Policy
000045701 700__ $$aFulton, Murray E.
000045701 700__ $$aGiannakas, Konstantinos
000045701 700__ $$aYunlai, Xiao
000045701 773__ $$d2003$$k 4$$o15$$q1$$tCAFRI: Current Agriculture, Food and Resource Issues
000045701 8564_ $$s442847$$uhttp://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/45701/files/fulton4-1_1_.pdf
000045701 887__ $$ahttp://purl.umn.edu/45701
000045701 909CO $$ooai:ageconsearch.umn.edu:45701$$pGLOBAL_SET
000045701 912__ $$nSubmitted by Valerie Johnson (valcaes@telus.net) on 2008-12-07T21:47:45Z
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  Previous issue date: 2003-03-08
000045701 982__ $$gCAFRI: Current Agriculture, Food and Resource Issues>Number 04, 2003
000045701 980__ $$a519