000028430 001__ 28430
000028430 005__ 20180926181711.0
000028430 037__ $$a1858-2016-152748
000028430 041__ $$aen
000028430 245__ $$aDoes the Liberalization of Trade Advance Gender Equality in Schooling and Health?
000028430 260__ $$c2006
000028430 269__ $$a2006
000028430 270__ $$mpaul.schultz@yale.edu$$pSchultz,   T. Paul
000028430 300__ $$a44
000028430 336__ $$aWorking or Discussion Paper
000028430 446__ $$aEnglish
000028430 490__ $$aEconomic Growth Center Discussion Paper No. 935
000028430 520__ $$aThis paper assesses the empirical relationship between the liberalization of international trade and the economic status of women.  Although historically globalization is not generally linked to the advancement of women, several recent country studies find export led growth in middle and low income countries is associated with improvements in women's employment opportunities.  Does intercountry empirical evidence confirm this association across a wider range of countries, and suggest the mechanisms by which it operates?  Measures of wages for men and women are an unreliable basis for study of gender inequality in many low-income countries, and thus schooling and health are analyzed here as indicators of productivity and welfare and gender gaps.  For a sample of 70 countries observed at five year intervals from 1965 to 1980, tariff, quota, and foreign exchange restrictions are found to be inversely associated with trade, and with the levels of education and health, especially for women.  Natural resource exports, although providing foreign exchange for imports, appear to reduce investments in schooling and health, and delay the equalization of these human capital investments between men and women. Liberalization of trade policy is consequently linked in the cross section to increased trade, to greater accumulation of human capital, and to increased gender equality.
000028430 650__ $$aInternational Relations/Trade
000028430 650__ $$aLabor and Human Capital
000028430 700__ $$aSchultz, T. Paul
000028430 8564_ $$s141491$$uhttp://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/28430/files/dp060935.pdf
000028430 887__ $$ahttp://purl.umn.edu/28430
000028430 909CO $$ooai:ageconsearch.umn.edu:28430$$pGLOBAL_SET
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  Previous issue date: 2006
000028430 982__ $$gYale University>Economic Growth Center>Center Discussion Papers
000028430 980__ $$a1858