000146653 001__ 146653
000146653 005__ 20180122224727.0
000146653 037__ $$a1547-2016-132398
000146653 041__ $$aen_US
000146653 245__ $$aMarginality: Addressing the Root Causes of Extreme Poverty
000146653 260__ $$c2011-03
000146653 269__ $$a2011-03
000146653 270__ $$mgatzweiler@uni‐bonn.de$$pGatzweiler,   Franz W.
000146653 270__ $$mheike@uni‐bonn.de$$pBaumüller,   Heike
000146653 270__ $$mladenburger@uni‐bonn.de$$pHusmann,   Christine
000146653 270__ $$mjvonbraun@uni‐bonn.de$$pvon Braun,   Joachim
000146653 300__ $$a19
000146653 336__ $$aWorking or Discussion Paper
000146653 490__ $$aZEF Working Paper Series
000146653 490__ $$a77
000146653 520__ $$aThe need to address extreme poverty from the perspective of marginality arises from the frustration
that the number of the poorest and hungry remains unacceptably high. This triggered the call for an
innovative approach from the side of science and action.
The conceptual and analytical framework developed here views marginality as a root cause of
extreme poverty. We define marginality as an involuntary position and condition of an individual or
group at the edge of social, economic, and ecological systems, preventing the access to resources,
assets, services, restraining freedom of choice, preventing the development of capabilities, and
causing extreme poverty.
Causal complexes tie the marginalized poor in systems from which they want to escape or in which
they want to improve their lives. The rural and agricultural context is of particular relevance here, as
we assume that large segments of the extreme poor live in rural areas. The poorest themselves have
described their situation, for instance, as being trapped in a “complex knot which can lead to further
knots if the wrong threads are pulled.”
While poverty is objectively a matter of absolute deficiencies, we explain why the way in which
poverty is perceived by the poor themselves requires looking at poverty as a relative, subjective,
dynamic and systemic phenomenon. We conceptualize marginality as patterns of causal complexes
in societal and spatial dimensions. These causal complexes can, for instance, comprise different types
of livelihood systems or different types of poverty traps. They include proximate as well as
underlying causes of extreme poverty and specifically address social exclusion, restrained access to
assets, opportunities and transport, communication and public services infrastructure.
An analytical framework is developed, outlining the various steps required for the analysis of
marginality in a systematic, re‐iterative and participatory manner, involving those affected by
extreme poverty themselves. From each causal complex of marginality, leverage points can be
identified which match with specific intervention packages, relevant for livelihood management,
policy formulation and implementation. The approach to the investigation of extreme poverty is
applied and relevant for managing change towards inclusive development. Points of entry for public
and private investments are being identified.
000146653 542__ $$fLicense granted by Sophie Koehler (sophie.koehler@uni-bonn.de) on 2013-03-19T14:38:39Z (GMT):

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000146653 650__ $$aCommunity/Rural/Urban Development
000146653 650__ $$aConsumer/Household Economics
000146653 650__ $$aFood Security and Poverty
000146653 650__ $$aInstitutional and Behavioral Economics
000146653 650__ $$aInternational Development
000146653 650__ $$aLabor and Human Capital
000146653 6531_ $$aMarginality
000146653 6531_ $$aExtreme poverty
000146653 6531_ $$aComplexity
000146653 6531_ $$aSystems
000146653 6531_ $$aChange
000146653 6531_ $$aInterventions
000146653 700__ $$aGatzweiler, Franz W.
000146653 700__ $$aBaumuller, Heike
000146653 700__ $$aHusmann, Christine Ladenburger
000146653 700__ $$avon Braun, Joachim
000146653 8564_ $$s1056912$$uhttp://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/146653/files/wp77.pdf
000146653 887__ $$ahttp://purl.umn.edu/146653
000146653 909CO $$ooai:ageconsearch.umn.edu:146653$$pGLOBAL_SET
000146653 912__ $$nSubmitted by Sophie Koehler (sophie.koehler@uni-bonn.de) on 2013-03-19T15:02:20Z
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  Previous issue date: 2011-03
000146653 982__ $$gUniversity of Bonn>Center for Development Research (ZEF)>Working Papers
000146653 980__ $$a1547