000014422 001__ 14422
000014422 005__ 20180122195435.0
000014422 037__ $$a1687-2016-137183
000014422 041__ $$aen
000014422 245__ $$aINTERNATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL R&D SPILLOVERS: ATTRIBUTION OF BENEFITS AMONG SOURCES FOR BRAZIL'S NEW CROP VARIETIES
000014422 260__ $$c2002
000014422 269__ $$a2002
000014422 270__ $$mppardey@apec.umn.edu$$pPardey,   Philip G.
000014422 300__ $$a39
000014422 336__ $$aWorking or Discussion Paper
000014422 446__ $$aEnglish
000014422 490__ $$aWorking Paper WP02-6; Paper Presented at the 8th Joint Conference on Food, Agriculture and the Environment, August 25-28, 2002, Red Cedar Lake, Wisconsin
000014422 520__ $$aIn general, reported rates of return to agricultural R&D are high, but questions have been raised about upward biases in the evidence.  Among the reasons for this bias, insufficient attention to attribution aspects-matching of research benefits and costs-is a pervasive problem, the magnitude of which is illustrated here with new evidence for Brazil.  Over the period 1981 to 2003, varietal improvements in upland rice, edible beans, and soybeans yielded benefits attributable to research of $14.8 billion in present value (1999 prices) terms; 6.1 percent of the corresponding value of crop output.  If all of those benefits were attributed to Embrapa, a public research corporation accounting for more than half Brazil's agricultural R&D spending, the benefit-cost ratio would be 78:1.  If a geometric attribution rule based on genetic histories is used in conjunction with quantitative evidence on the extent of research collaborations to account for the innovative effort of others, the ratio drops substantially to 16:1.  The sources of these gains vary markedly among crops and over time, making it hard to generalize about the international and institutional origins of varietal innovations in Brazilian agriculture during the past several decades.
000014422 650__ $$aCrop Production/Industries
000014422 650__ $$aResearch and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
000014422 6531_ $$aBrazil
000014422 6531_ $$aagricultural R&D
000014422 6531_ $$aattribution
000014422 6531_ $$asoybeans
000014422 6531_ $$arice
000014422 6531_ $$abeans
000014422 6531_ $$abenefit-cost ratios
000014422 700__ $$aPardey, Philip G.
000014422 700__ $$aAlston, Julian M.
000014422 700__ $$aChan-Kang, Connie
000014422 700__ $$aMagalhaes, Eduardo Castelo
000014422 700__ $$aVosti, Stephen A.
000014422 8564_ $$s247670$$uhttp://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/14422/files/wp02-06.pdf
000014422 887__ $$ahttp://purl.umn.edu/14422
000014422 909CO $$ooai:ageconsearch.umn.edu:14422$$pGLOBAL_SET
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  Previous issue date: 2002
000014422 982__ $$gUniversity of Minnesota>Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy>Working Papers
000014422 980__ $$a1687